Infodemiology

User-generated health data from internet search and social media to inform public health and public policy responses


Link Drop

Got another link for this section? Put it here.



✏️ Edit this document to make it better ✏️

Internet Search Data

Academic Papers


"The use of google trends to investigate the loss of smell related searches during COVID‐19 outbreak", Allergy & Rhinology

🔗 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/alr.22580

🗣 [email protected]


"Tracking COVID-19 using online search" (Pre-print working paper)

🔗 https://github.com/vlampos/covid-19-online-search/blob/master/covid-19-online-search.pdf

🗣 [email protected]


"Tracking COVID-19 in Europe: Infodemiology Approach", JMIR Public Health & Surveillance

🔗 https://publichealth.jmir.org/2020/2/e18941/

🗣 [email protected]


"How to Best Predict the Daily Number of New Infections of COVID-19" (Pre-print)

🔗 https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3571252

🗣 [email protected]


"The Second Worldwide Wave of Interest in Coronavirus since the COVID-19 Outbreaks in South Korea, Italy and Iran: A Google Trends Study", Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

🔗 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889159120305511

🗣 https://twitter.com/arturstrzelecki


"Online Information Search During COVID-19" (Pre-print)

🔗 https://arxiv.org/pdf/2004.07183v1.pdf

🗣 [email protected]


"In Crisis, We Pray: Religiosity and the COVID-19 Pandemic", Centre for Economic Policy Research

🔗 https://cepr.org/sites/default/files/news/CovidEconomics20.pdf#Paper2

🗣 https://twitter.com/JeanetBentzen


"Internet Search Patterns Reveal Clinical Course of Disease Progression for COVID-19 and Predict Pandemic Spread in 32 Countries" (Pre-print)

🔗 https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.01.20087858v1

🗣 [email protected]; [email protected]


"Evidence from internet search data shows information-seeking responses to news of local COVID-19 cases"

🔗 https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/05/01/2005335117

🗣 [email protected]; [email protected]


"COVID-19, Lockdowns and Well-Being: Evidence from Google Trends" (Pre-print)

🔗 https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/13204/covid-19-lockdowns-and-well-being-evidence-from-google-trends

🗣 [email protected]


"Analysis of hospital traffic and search engine data in Wuhan China indicates early disease activity in the Fall of 2019" (Pre-print)

🔗 https://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/42669767

🗣 [email protected]


"Tracking EU Citizens’ Concerns using Google Search Data" (Ongoing European Commission project)

🔗 https://ec.europa.eu/knowledge4policy/projects-activities/tracking-eu-citizens%E2%80%99-concerns-using-google-search-data_en

🗣 [email protected]; [email protected]


"Inequality in household adaptation to schooling shocks: covid-induced online learning engagement in real time" (Working paper)

🔗 https://drive.google.com/file/d/1w8DAda_Iu0NtxN25Wfbjfd5r_Xw2F8To/view

🗣 [email protected]


"An Early Warning Approach to Monitor COVID-19 Activity with Multiple Digital Traces in Near Real-Time" (Pre-print)

🔗 https://arxiv.org/pdf/2007.00756.pdf

🗣 [email protected]as.harvard.edu


Blogs & Journalism


"How can Google search help with the COVID-19 response?"

🔗 https://www.bennettinstitute.cam.ac.uk/blog/how-can-google-search-help-covid-19-response/

🗣 https://twitter.com/samgilb

Bennett Institute for Public Policy, University of Cambridge


"Coronavirus Google Searches Could Save Lives"

🔗 https://onezero.medium.com/google-needs-to-share-the-data-from-coronavirus-searches-62e6f60cc363

🗣 [email protected]

OneZero


"Google Searches Can Help Us Find Emerging Covid-19 Outbreaks"

🔗 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/05/opinion/coronavirus-google-searches.html

🗣 https://twitter.com/SethS_D

New York Times


"Sniffing out COVID-19 with Google Search Trends."

🔗 https://medium.com/@miahusic/sniffing-out-covid-19-with-google-search-trends-46f80ea83e2f

🗣 https://medium.com/@miahusic

Medium


"Goldman says fewer "Loss of Smell" Google queries suggest better COVID-19 prospects"

🔗 https://www.cnbc.com/2020/04/15/goldman-says-fewer-loss-of-smell-google-searches-is-a-positive-sign-for-pandemic.html

🗣 https://twitter.com/tomwfranck

CNBC


"Search Trends and The Coronavirus Outbreak: Causation or Correlation"

🔗 https://www.semrush.com/blog/search-trends-coronavirus/

🗣 https://twitter.com/SEO

SEMRush


"Your Google Searches Could Shape the Response to the Next Pandemic"

🔗 https://onezero.medium.com/your-google-searches-could-shape-the-response-to-the-next-pandemic-ade9148a5e58

🗣 https://twitter.com/chrisbaraniuk

OneZero


"Smells like trouble? Google searches as a sign of COVID-19"

🔗https://mtega.com/2020/05/smells-like-trouble-google-searches-as-a-sign-of-covid-19/

🗣 https://twitter.com/mtega


"Can Google Ads data predict the next coronavirus outbreak?"

🔗https://mashable.com/article/google-ads-data-coronavirus/?europe=true

🗣 https://twitter.com/MattBinder

Mashable


"In a pandemic, what use is Google?"

🔗 https://ocean.sagepub.com/blog/methods-innovation/using-internet-search-data-in-the-covid19-response

🗣 https://twitter.com/samgilb

SAGE Ocean


"Could search engines predict the spread of coronavirus?"

🔗 https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/technology-53078581/could-search-engines-predict-the-spread-of-coronavirus

🗣 https://twitter.com/samgilb

BBC News


"Coronavirus Tracked: Could Google Search Trends help predict a rise in COVID-19 cases?"

🔗 https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/coronavirus-second-wave-us-google-trends-covid-19-symptoms-a9559371.html

🗣 https://twitter.com/ADCuthbertson

The Independent


"Search results are helping tackle COVID-19 – now we should use them to develop policies"

🔗 https://apolitical.co/en/solution_article/search-results-are-helping-tackle-covid-19-now-we-should-use-them-to-develop-policies

🗣 https://twitter.com/stokel

Apolitical


"Google Searches Reveal Covid-19 Hot Spots Before Governments Do"

🔗 https://onezero.medium.com/google-searches-reveal-covid-19-hot-spots-before-governments-do-b689b3008ac1

🗣 [email protected]

OneZero


"Retail Nowcasting"

🔗 https://imrg.org/blog/retail-nowcasting/

🗣 https://www.linkedin.com/in/stevejohnston1/

IMRG


"Can an algorithm predict the pandemic's next moves?"

🔗 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/02/health/santillana-coronavirus-model-forecast.html

🗣 https://twitter.com/bencareynyt

New York Times


Visualizations


Anosmia Searches

🔗 USA: https://www.berlinquette.com/anosmia-searches

🔗 Tanzania: https://www.berlinquette.com/anosmia-google-searches-tanzania

🗣 [email protected]

Interactive visualization of Google searches for anosmia / loss of smell in the most populated cities in the US and Tanzania. Built in Google Data Studio, so data is downloadable in csv.


Coronasearch Live

🔗 https://www.coronasearch.live/

🗣 https://twitter.com/WarmSpeakers

Currently, people in China use VPN's (Virtual Private Networks) to bypass censorship, and Google info about the Coronavirus (COVID-19). This website compiles these Google searches, word for word, in real-time. Built in Google Data Studio, so data is downloadable in csv.


Should I Suggestions

🔗 https://public.flourish.studio/visualisation/1512938/

🗣 https://twitter.com/ColeyBird

Evolution of UK public's concerns over time during 2020, as revealed by searches beginning "Should I..."


Search Datasets from Google & Bing


Bing Coronavirus search query set

🌎🔗 https://github.com/microsoft/BingCoronavirusQuerySet

🗣 [email protected]

This dataset was curated from the Bing search logs (desktop users only) over the period of Jan 1st, 2020 – April 18th, 2020.Only searches that were issued many times by multiple users were included. Dataset includes queries from all over the world that had an intent related to the Coronavirus or Covid-19. In some cases this intent is explicit in the query itself, e.g. “Coronavirus updates Seattle” in other cases it is implicit , e.g. “Shelter in place” .Implicit intent of search queries (e.g. Toilet paper) were extracted by using Random walks on the click graph approach as outlined in this paper by Microsoft Research. All personal data was removed.


Coronavirus: Top cities and trending searches by country - Google Trends Datastore

🔗https://googletrends.github.io/data/

🗣 [email protected]

Daily Google Trends data for 40 countries on:

  • The top 100 cities in each country, ranked in order of search interest in Coronavirus.
  • Top trending searches are the fastest accelerating search terms in each country related to Coronavirus


Coronavirus searches by date/lang/country from AnswerThePublic

🌎🔗 https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1roQeJkDBH2d2UGV85HzwAmxOHwehV2te4X7YzRcWqDI

🗣 [email protected] 

Search term variation data on Coronavirus (i.e., what people google when they google “coronavirus”) Geographical scope: Various languages and countries (including Italy, Netherlands, France, Germany, Belgium, US, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Norway, Switzerland, UK)

Data has been collecting on a near-daily basis since 20/01/2020


Coronavirus search term variations and volume - various countries

🌎🔗https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1elbDJU7WPPv5s2-rS8K9M53Og-gvCm5pV2kN87BLxpk/edit?usp=sharing

🗣https://twitter.com/samgilb

Long lists of Coronavirus keywords with estimated search volumes for 9 countries, sourced from the search engine marketing tool SEMrush. Covers UK, Italy, India, USA, Australia, France, Germany, Spain, Brazil. As at 14 March 2020.


Country-specific search datasets


Madagascar

Coronavirus search term variation data in French for Madagascar from Answer The Public (as at 6 April 2020):

MG 🔗https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1DBcm9Y6ZCOoh61RNeCjROpXTJ76RiFWh_cVABTaDRe8/edit#gid=0


United Kingdom

🇬🇧🔗https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1rWdx7ITPyAA5497T18TI1BL5Gxz-Oi7aVAVrE8f50sU/edit?usp=and sharing

Search term variation data from Hitwise on Coronavirus (as at 25 Jan 2020) - that is, what people google when they google “Coronavirus”


United Kingdom - Counties, Cities, Towns

🇬🇧🔗 https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/19Sc2M3zP-OwQjdwefTvW54vwsIJ0JpSAYL_cCYD1DTE/edit?usp=sharing

Search term variation data for the UK by County, City & Town, extracted from the Bing Coronavirus Search Query Set. April 2020.


Tools


Google Trends

🔗 https://trends.google.com/trends/

To request Google Trends API access:

🔗 https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSenHdGiGl1YF-7rVDDmmulN8R-ra9MnGLLs7gIIaAX9VHPdPg/viewform

For general guidance on using Google Trends in academic research: 🔗http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/~hal/Papers/2015/primer.pdf


Answer The Public

🔗 https://answerthepublic.com/

🗣 https://twitter.com/answerthepublic

Instant, raw search insights on any keyword, compiled from Google autocomplete suggestions, with csv download


Baidu Index

🔗 https://index.baidu.com/

Baidu equivalent of Google Trends


Social Media Data

Social Media Datasets


Covid-19 Twitter chatter dataset for scientific use

🌎🔗http://www.panacealab.org/covid19/

Dataset of tweets acquired from the Twitter Stream related to COVID-19. Includes all language, with English, Spanish, and French most prevalent.


COVID-19-TweetIDs

🌎🔗https://github.com/echen102/COVID-19-TweetIDs

The repository contains an ongoing collection of tweets IDs associated with COVID-19.


Twitter COVID-19 Stream

🌎🔗https://developer.twitter.com/en/docs/labs/covid19-stream/overview

A streaming endpoint into Twitter Developer Labs.

Returns tweets based on Twitter's internal COVID-19 Tweet annotation and a set of defined parameters Twitter believes deliver a comprehensive view of the conversation around this topic.


COVID-19 Mentions DB Project

🔗https://covid19-mentions-db.com/

Our goal is to collect all mentions to JCOVID-19 starting from December 1, 2019, from Twitter, Facebook and Instagram in one database and provide access to this information for all researchers, journalists, and OSINT specialists.