The same mask as deocumented in the NYT article, is described in Business Insider

How to Sew a Fabric Face Mask


The same pattern as that in the NYT article can also be found here, with photographic instructions. No sewing machine required

How to Sew a Fabric Face Mask


This article from Good Housekeeping includes video instruction for a similar pattern

DIY Cloth Face Mask


DIY cloth face mask

Paper Made Masks

Fabriquer un masque de protection par le Pr Garin, ARTELIA-MT2i

🇫🇷📺🔗 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Lg0jnJ3hEo

Paper Mask. A video showing how to make a simple paper mask from paper and rubber bands, with a tissue filter

How to Make Your Own Facemask Out of Kitchen Towels


DIY face mask developed by Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital. Can be made using ordinary household items: paper towel, tissue paper, elastic string, masking tape, plastic coated wires, hole puncher, scissors. 90% as effective as a regular surgical mask

How to Make a Frame (Cage) Mask


Instructions on how to make a modular Frame Mask from reusable aluminised Tetra Pak drinks carton, allowing the filter to be replaced independently of the mask, as the filter is a separate layer

How to Make a Basic Coronavirus Face Mask


Water F186665ilter Mask (Blog). This mask is made out of relatively readily-available materials and does not require access to a 3D printer. Water filters are the most difficult to source: in the UK, they can be purchased, or found for free at Brita recycling points

3D Printed Respirators/Masks

N95 Maker Challenge


N95 Maker Project Open source doc

3D Face Shields

🇬🇧🔗https://www.3dcrowd.uk/ crowdsourcing production of 3D printed masks in the UK

3D Printable Respirator Quality Masks


Open source mask that can be used with filters. Requires a 3-D printer.

The respirator has NIH approval for community use and in a clinical setting

NIH 3D Print Exchange


You can filter the search results to show patterns that have been clinically reviewed, are under review, for community use, etc

CIIRC RP95-3D Respirator/Half Mask


The CIIRC RP95-3D is a personal protective equipment – half-mask – with a P3 replaceable external filter which has been certified as a kit according to EN 140:1999 norm. It meets the same or higher degree of protection as a FFP3 class respirator.

3-D template requires HP MJF 3D printer

Open Source 3D printed protective gear

🔗Gladius Friends and Gladius Heroes Respirator design with HEPA filter released to the Open-Source community



3D printed masks using HVAC hepa filters. "This protocol details using a conventional FDM 3D printer to create a reusable face mask that aims to be a mask of last resort if no N95 (or similar) masks are available."

Masks are untested

Flexible Mask Valvy - COVID-19


Flexible Mask Valvy by iczfirz. Two designs that are essentially the same. Seems tricky to do and you also need to source the filter material from somewhere



Free open-source 3D printing design for printing a mask at home. Fast to print, easy to assemble. Design is created/endorsed by two researchers at the CNR, Italy’s major public research facility (no data yet provided publicly regarding efficacy or intended use).


⚠️🔗 https://copper3d.com/hackthepandemic/ - Nanohack, open source face mask

"This is last resort device, not intended to be a regular ppe (personal protective equipment) or a n95 mask. As any 3d printed device, you should post-process, clean, and seal the mask in order to use properly. We don’t recommend to print face masks with regular pla, pet-g or tpu materials, antimicrobial/active materials should be the correct option in this case. This is an open source file and we expect your collaboration to improve this design." The warning on this site is likely applicable to all other 3D masks as well

Covid Skunk Works


COVID-19 Skunkworks- 3D printable face masks

Other Mask Designs

Salt coated mask


A biomedical engineer created a mask coated in salt that he says could neutralize viruses like the coronavirus in 5 minutes

Snorkel Mask


Dutch team develops a connector making snorkel mask usable as emergency protection for medical staff. A reusable full face mask for emergency use by medical staff has been developed by a team of anesthesiologists from the Haaglanden Medical Centre (HMC) in the Netherlands


How to Reuse Masks

Medical Guidance

CDC Guidance


Recommended Guidance for Extended Use and Limited Reuse of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators in Healthcare Settings

COVID-19 Evidence Service| Addressing COVID-19 Face Mask Shortages [v1.1]


Info sheet by Stanford Medicine Anesthesia Informatics and Media Lab. Discusses protocol for when to wear N95s, the best replacements for N95s if they run out, whether N95s remain effective with reuse, whether N95s can be sterilized for reuse

University Research

Stanford University


A team of Stanford researchers may have found a way to use heat to disinfect N95 respirators

Duke University


Duke Starts Innovative Decontamination of N95 Masks to Help Relieve Shortages

University of Tennessee


University of Tennessee Research Foundation page on the protection and sterilization of both medical masks and N95s

Stanford University


Stanford Anesthesia Informatics and Media lab factsheet on whether or not masks can be safely disinfected and reused

Delft University of Technology


Delft University of Technology paper. 'Sterilization of disposable face masks by means of standardized dry and steam sterilization processes: an alternative in the fight against mask shortages due to COVID-19'. Heat inactivation 121°C

University of Manitoba


Canada Broadcasting Corporation news story: 'Manitoba researchers say they may have found a way to safely reuse N95 masks amid COVID-19 crisis'. Heat inactivation 121°C

FIXME, find link to published report, and include this instead

Other Research

N95 Decon


A scientific consortium for data-driven study of N95 filtering facepiece respirator decontamination

Guide to reusing and disinfecting a respirator


A comprehensive guide on how to reuse and disinfect respirator

Mr Henry Bemis


In-depth post discussing simple improvised mask procedure, increasing the effectiveness and steriity of improvised cloth masks, salt and surfactant mediated viral deactivation, n95 electrostatic charge preservation, disinfectant and decontamination procedures

Heat Inactivation Testing


References on efficacy of heat inactivation, and summary of results from multiple heat and UV decontamination tests.

Shortage of Masks

Supply and demand matching

Make Masks 2020


Matches requests with makers, good guide for organising group effort

How to Organize a Community PPE Drive


Comprehensive guide on how to collect and distribute PPE

List of US Hospitals needing PPE


List of US hospitals seeking PPE

Masks for Docs


Masks for Docs aims to get masks into the hands of US healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals can submit needs and volunteers can sign up to volunteer on the ground, donate supplies, or facilitate distribution to local hospitals

Masks for Heroes