Fighting Misinformation and Disinformation

Trust, Verification, Fact Checking & Beyond


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Link Drop


https://twitter.com/EricTopol/status/1246821512306286593
"The #infodemic can spread much faster than the pandemic"

๐Ÿ”—https://www.medpagetoday.com/infectiousdisease/covid19/85741?trw=no
"The most harmful perception about COVID-19 is that it's a disease that only affects the very old or the infirm."

๐Ÿ”—https://ksj.mit.edu/coronavirus-reporting-resources/
"To help reporters find clear, accurate information about the pandemic โ€” and report on it responsibly โ€” KSJ has compiled the following collection of resources and tools."

๐Ÿ”—https://journalistsresource.org/tip-sheets/research/medical-research-preprints-coronavirus/
"Six key things reporters need to know about preprints, based on interviews with two people with vast experience in biomedical research"

๐Ÿ”—https://www.coe.int/fr/web/media-freedom/-/press-freedom-must-not-be-undermined-by-measures-to-counter-disinformation-about-covid-19
Actualitรฉs relatives ร  la protection du journalisme et ร  la sรฉcuritรฉ des journalistes

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2020/apr/07/whatsapp-to-impose-new-limit-on-forwarding-to-fight-fake-news WhatsApp restricts message forwarding options to fight fake news


Definitions

๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ”—https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmcumeds/1791/1791.pdf
UK Parliament Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee- The UK parliamentโ€™s Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee published the results of its wide-ranging investigation into the phenomenon of โ€œfake newsโ€ in February 2019. One of the initial findings of that report was that the term โ€œfake newsโ€ itself was excessively vague. The report suggested instead using the terms Misinformation and Disinformation. It definedย  Misinformation as the inadvertent sharing of false information. Whereas Disinformation was described as the โ€œdeliberate creation and sharing of false and/or misleading information intended to deceive and manipulate audiences, either for the purposes of causing harm, for political, personal or financial gainโ€.

Debunking Mis/Disinformation

๐Ÿ”—https://www.poynter.org/ifcn-covid-19-misinformation/?fbclid=IwAR2ts47-Cgvw7DxZ4JRN3hWLQmCv9WXARlPIJuO4lqhW0n6oroWhXgOL5JY
A searchable database of Covid-19 falsehoods aggregated by the International Fact-Checking Network's #CoronaVirusFactsAlliance. The database is an effort of fact-checkers in +70 countries, and is also available in Spanish.

๐Ÿ”—https://blog.malwarebytes.com/social-engineering/2020/02/battling-online-coronavirus-scams-with-facts/
Battling online coronavirus scams with facts

๐Ÿ”— https://toolbox.google.com/factcheck/explorer/search/coronavirus;hl=
A google portal for searching through fact checks.

๐Ÿ”— https://fullfact.org/health/wuhan-coronavirus/
๐Ÿ—ฃย https://twitter.com/fullfact
Full Fact- Articles about coronavirus from the UKโ€™s independent fact checking charity.

๐Ÿ”—https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2020/03/26/genomic-research-points-to-natural-origin-of-covid-19/
National Institute of Health- NIH publishes evidence that Coronavirus did not come from a lab - genomic study debunks claims that the novel #coronavirus causing #COVID-19 was created in a lab

๐Ÿ”—https://twitter.com/MaxKennerly/status/1241557612409360385
Max Kennerly- Max Kennerly debunks an article saying coronavirus threat is overstated

๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ”—https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/02/coronavirus-myths-facts-questions-world-health-organization/
Myths and facts about Coronavirus. It's important not to spread fake news, and to also calm yourself down knowing what is real and not from news you hear from others.ย 

General examples of mis/disinformation related to Covid-19

๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธhttps://fpc.org.uk/coronavirus-response-shows-disinformation-is-the-new-normal/
Article on Coronavirus showing Disinformation is the go-to tool for governmentโ€™s managing reputation damage

๐Ÿ”—https://twitter.com/WellingMichael/status/1241914189398134785
February 14, 2020ย Director of the Center for Coordination of Health Alerts and Emergencies of the Ministry of Health. said;ย 
ย "In Spain we do not have COVID-19" and "the population must understand that there is no risk ..โ€

๐Ÿ”—https://twitter.com/tortoise/status/1243097259706929152
From miraculous cures to paranoid conspiracies, we investigate how misinformation about the virus is going viral at a disturbing rate.


๐Ÿ”—https://www.bellingcat.com/news/2020/03/25/the-coronavirus-disinformation-system-how-it-works/
Overview of the types of disinformation spread during Covid-19.

Lockdown Rumours

๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ”—https://m.facebook.com/groups/221979475862484?view=permalink&id=243342353726196
Misinformation in Italy

๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ”—https://twitter.com/JaneLytv/status/1238191223518756871?s=20
Rumours of lockdown in New York

Drug-Related Misinformation

๐Ÿ”—https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/27/vital-drug-people-lupus-coronavirus-covid-19-link-hydroxychloroquine
Vital drug for people with lupus running out after unproven Covid-19 link "Italy and France now prescribing hydroxychloroquine for coronavirus despite fact its effectiveness is unknown"

๐Ÿ”—https://twitter.com/marynmck/status/1243149077015035904
Online furore over whether itโ€™s safe to use the fever reducer reveals how people are sharing incompleteโ€”and sometimes badโ€”information

๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ”—https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/28/technology/coronavirus-fauci-trump-conspiracy-target.html
Medical Expert (Dr. Fauci) Who Corrects Trump Is Now a Target of the Far Right

Scams

๐Ÿ”—https://www.tradingstandards.uk/news-policy/news-room/2020/ctsi-issues-warning-over-new-covid-19-related-scams
Trading standards advice regarding coronavirusย scams

๐Ÿ”—https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/31/opinion/fake-treatment-cure-coronavirus.html
Covid-19 Has Closed Stores, but Snake Oil Is Still for Sale https://buff.ly/3dQIrxJ Pitches for treatments with no scientific proof erode trust and threaten lives.

๐Ÿ”—https://www.bellingcat.com/news/rest-of-world/2020/03/19/how-coronavirus-scammers-hide-on-facebook-and-youtube/
How Covid-19 scammers try to evade detection on Facebook and YouTube.

Misinformation Trackers

๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ”—https://covid19misinfo.org
A project from the Social Media Lab at Ryerson University to provide reliable information and real-time information visualization dashboards to track false claims related to the spread of the virus from around the web (announcement).

๐Ÿ”— https://securingdemocracy.gmfus.org/coronavirus-and-information-manipulation/
Alliance for Securing Democracy: Coronavirus and Information Manipulation (USA/Europe)- Tracking COVID-19-related misinformation from Russia and China; by the German Marshall Fund's Alliance for Securing Democracy

๐Ÿ”—https://euvsdisinfo.eu/disinformation-cases/?offset=0
EU versus Disinformation- Tracks and publishes Kremlin and Chinese COVID-19 disinformation

๐Ÿ”—๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช https://forms.crowdnewsroom.org/corona-fakenews/corona-fakenews/slide0
Correctiv- German Fake News Tracking form

๐Ÿ”—https://twitter.com/Imi_Ahmed/status/1241714991927091201?s=20
๐Ÿ“ง[email protected]
Centre for Countering Digital Hate- CCDH are asking people to send in examples of fakenews around the coronavirus. If you see examples of Covid-19 misinformation & fake cures, esp on Facebook/ WhatsApp, please send URLs/ screenshots to [email protected]

Trusted Sources

Institutions

๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ”—https://www.convaise.com/ (in German)ย 
Convaise (Germany)- With governments keen to tackle misinformation, German GovStart 2019 company Convaise offers a chatbot solution allowing citizens to communicate with public institutions.
This startup is currently schooling its chatbot on a corpus of COVID-19 Q&A exchanges.

๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ”—https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public/myth-busters
WHO Myth-busters- Shareable images debunking some myths about Coronavirus.

๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ”— https://fas.org/ncov
๐Ÿ“ง [email protected]
Federation of American Scientists- Several common misconceptions about coronavirus.

๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ”—https://www.fema.gov/coronavirus-rumor-control
US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Rumor Control- Myth busting.

๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ”— https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2020/03/keeping-each-other-safe-when-virtually-organizing-mutual-aid
Electronic Frontier Foundation guide to security and privacy in mutual aid (and during pandemics).

๐Ÿ”— https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html
John Hopkins' Covid-19 map of global cases.

Experts

๐ŸŒ๐Ÿ”—https://www.ucl.ac.uk/oppenheim/Covid-19_tweeps.shtml?
A list of scientists and organisations with expertise who are themselves highly followed by experts

๐Ÿ”— Mercer Covid-19 global market impact survey (corporate content)
Corporate release from Mercer- Information on coronavirus for the corporate world

๐Ÿ”—https://smartable.ai/apps/coronavirus/stats/
Smartable.AI Statistics & News- Compilation of stats and data

๐Ÿ”—https://drive.google.com/file/d/1pKYta6ldIW6dhoWhgq54HlKgsma310OA/view
Neuroscientist's take on COVID-19- A short presentation on the facts about coronavirus.

๐Ÿ”—https://twitter.com/MaxKennerly/status/1241557612409360385
Max Kennerly debunks an article saying coronavirus threat is overstated

๐Ÿ”—https://twitter.com/i/lists/1233373419640623104
Associated tweet at https://twitter.com/buileshuibhne/status/1236953325918134272
Eoghan Sweeneyโ€™s list of trusted Twitter accounts

๐Ÿ”—https://blog.thefactual.com/credible-journalists-covid-19
Top rated Covid-19 reporters

๐Ÿ”—https://expertconnect.global/results?query=epidemiology%20AND%20pandemic%20AND%20%22infectious%20Disease%22&findHer=false
A list of Infectious Disease experts

Peer-Reviewed Research

๐Ÿ”—https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=coronavirus&btnG=&oq=
Google scholar search for coronavirus

๐Ÿ”—https://the-eye.eu/public/Papers/CoronaVirusPapers/
Papers pulled out by the FoldingHome project

๐Ÿ”—https://examine.com/topics/coronavirus/research/ย 
Evidence based papers on the impact of Coronavirus

Fact-checking organizations

๐Ÿ”— https://www.snopes.com/?s=coronavirus
๐Ÿ—ฃ https://twitter.com/snopes
Snopes- Fact-checking site

๐Ÿ”— https://www.politifact.com/search/?q=coronavirus
๐Ÿ—ฃย https://twitter.com/PolitiFact
Politifact - Fact-checking site

๐Ÿ”— https://www.factcheck.org/issue/coronavirus
๐Ÿ—ฃ https://twitter.com/factcheckdotorg
FactCheck.org- Fact-checking site

๐Ÿ”—https://www.truthorfiction.com/search/?q=coronavirus
TruthOrFiction- Fact checking

๐Ÿ”—https://factcheck.afp.com/busting-coronavirus-myths
๐Ÿ—ฃhttps://twitter.com/AFPFactCheck
AFP Fact-Check- More than 100 fact-checks on the coronavirus from around the globe.

๐Ÿ”—๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จ https://coronavirusecuador.com/fake-news-coronavirus-ecuador/
Coronavirus Ecuador Fact checker - checks of fake news in Ecuador (in Spanish)

Platforms' Response to the Spread of Misinformation

๐Ÿ”—https://www.publicknowledge.org/tracking-report-covid19-misinformation/
Tracking Report: Digital Platform Responses to Misinformation During the Pandemic- Tool monitoring how digital platforms are responding to misinformation related to the pandemic.ย Updated regularly.

๐Ÿ”—https://about.fb.com/news/2020/03/combating-covid-19-misinformation/
Response on Covid-19 misinformation on Facebook, Instagram, Messenger and WhatsApp.

๐Ÿ”—https://www.nbcnews.com/news/amp/ncna1151466
In Facebook groups, coronavirus misinformation thrives despite broader crackdown- Dozens of Facebook groups totaling hundreds of thousands of members have become a haven for conspiracy theories, medical equipment promotion and unproven cures.

๐Ÿ”—https://inews.co.uk/news/coronavirus-fake-news-adverts-facebook-approved-2505661
Coronavirus fake news adverts approved by Facebook despite crackdown- The fake claims were seen by hundreds of thousands of users in the US and generated the company thousands of dollars, new research shows

๐Ÿ”—https://www.buzzfeed.com/joeydurso/youtube-coronavirus-misinformation
YouTube Is Letting Millions Of People Watch Videos Promoting Misinformation About The Coronavirus
False claims that the virus is caused by 5G phone signals or can be treated with vitamin C are being widely viewed on the platform.

๐Ÿ”—https://developer.apple.com/news/?id=03142020a
App Store bans coronavirus apps except from official sources- Commitments from Apple's App Store.The App Store should always be a safe and trusted place for users to download apps. Now more than ever that commitment takes on special significance as the world fights the COVID-19 pandemic.

Media

https://www.mediamatters.org/fox-news/fox-news-worried-about-legal-action-after-misleading-viewers-about-coronavirus
Fox News is worried about legal action after misleading viewers about coronavirus

Campaigns

๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ”—https://www.counterhate.co.uk/
#dontspreadthevirus Campaign to stop spreading fake cures and news about the coronavirus with tips on stopping and reporting misinformation

Funding

Please see: https://coronavirustechhandbook.com/funding


Crowdsourced resources

๐ŸŒ๐Ÿ”—https://coronavirustechhandbook.com/advice
Tech-Handbook Public Advice

๐ŸŒ๐Ÿ”—https://bit.ly/covid-info-list
List of trustworthy information on Covid-19 for the public, for every country in the world (ministries of health, research groups etc)

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ”—https://maldita.es/coronavirus/
Site to set up to combat misinformation (in Spanish)

Wikipedia

2019-20 Coronavirus Outbreak
๐Ÿ”— https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019%E2%80%9320_coronavirus_outbreak
Anyone can edit this main article, so letโ€™s try and make it correct!
๐Ÿ”—https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:2019%E2%80%9320_coronavirus_pandemic
There are over 200 covid-19 related articles in this template (click โ€˜showโ€™ to see dropdown)

Misinformation related to the 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic
๐Ÿ”—Misinformation_related_to_the_2019-20_coronavirus_pandemic
๐Ÿ—ฃTalk:Misinformation_related_to_the_2019-20_coronavirus_pandemic
After the initial outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), conspiracy theories and misinformation spread online regarding the origin and scale, and various other aspects of the disease. Various social media posts claimed the virus was a bio-weapon with a patented vaccine, a population control scheme, or the result of a spy operation.

Resources for journalists

First Draft
๐Ÿ”—https://firstdraftnews.org/latest/5-tips-ways-we-can-all-covid19-check-coronavirus-information-online-fake-disinformation-misinformation/ย 
๐Ÿ”—https://firstdraftnews.org/long-form-article/coronavirus-resources-for-reporters/
๐Ÿ—ฃ https://twitter.com/firstdraftnewsย 
Tips and advice for reporters reporting on Coronavirus

European Journalism Observatory
๐Ÿ”—https://en.ejo.ch/ethics-quality/fact-checkers-go-into-battle-against-coronavirus-misinformation?fbclid=IwAR0x3smXSwrPX6Ed_e785Xm7bvK26fgwLCjPgEXyOcxJMxSgdERE3VKqvXM
Collection of resources for journalists

Socialย Observatoryย forย Disinformationย and Social Media Analysis
๐Ÿ”—https://www.disinfobservatory.org
SOMA is comprised of fact-checkers, journalists, researchers, media organizations and policymakers and provides access to tools that facilitate collaborative verification.

Tools & guides to conducting online investigations
๐Ÿ”—https://www.bellingcat.com/resources/2020/03/27/investigating-coronavirus-fakes-and-disinfo-here-are-some-tools-for-you/
Includes Bellingcat's Online Investigation Toolkit as well as case study examples.

Aggregated list of available resources
๐Ÿ”— https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1fO_f-RworsU0BRqgyiKcrdb4gyUYuo4rUqzsu9zoCII/edit#gid=1482106473&fvid=342748075
40+ fact checking resources'(Open) Data, Facts, Metrics sources & views by ageor - Google Sheets'

Media Literacy

Awareness

You Think You Want Media Literacyโ€ฆ Do You?
๐Ÿ”— https://points.datasociety.net/you-think-you-want-media-literacy-do-you-7cad6af18ec2
๐Ÿ—ฃ https://twitter.com/zephoria
โ€œIf weโ€™re not careful, โ€œmedia literacyโ€ and โ€œcritical thinkingโ€ will simply be deployed as an assertion of authority over epistemology.โ€

Amil Khan
๐Ÿ”— https://www.facebook.com/Londonstani/ย 
Amil Khanโ€™s Political comms and Disinformation related Facebook page geared towards discussing and trying out different techniques to reach key audiences and have an impact on the way they consume and react to info.ย 

Actions

๐Ÿ”—https://docs.google.com/document/d/1NlyNozAKQJIPoYpGjh2kgwfrKhtPn6Rm5vMdPm5dPxw/edit
An activity designed to engage students in evaluating the most important resources from a provided list of authoritative sources concerning Covid-19 in terms of health information and communication strategies.

Psychology

๐Ÿ”—http://andrewtlittle.com/papers/backuslittle_idk.pdf
We model the strategic communication of uncertainty, allowing for the salient reality that sometimes the effects of proposed policies are impossible to know. Our model highlights the challenge of getting experts to admit uncertainty, even when it is possible to check predictive success. Moreover, we identify a novel solution: checking features of the question that only good experts will infer โ€“ in particular, whether the effect of policies is knowable โ€“ allows for equilibria where uninformed experts do say โ€œI Donโ€™t Know.โ€

๐Ÿ”—https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Framing_(social_sciences)
Framing- Message โ€œframingโ€ is helpful for constructing effective risk communication messages.

๐Ÿ”—https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2011/04/denial-science-chris-mooney/
Motivated Reasoning- How our preexisting beliefs, far more than any new facts, can skew our thoughts and even color what we consider our most dispassionate and logical conclusions. How individuals are motivated to believe lockdowns can end early and life will return to normal, despite all scientific evidence showing otherwise. This is a main driver for people to spread misinformation unknowingly. And why many in the public spread lies that coronavirus is intentional, a hoax, or not that dangerous.

๐Ÿ”—https://www.who.int/risk-communication/introduction-to-risk-communication.pdf?ua=1
Risk communication- The importance of balancing risk with solutions (self-efficacy and hope) during communications. Human psychology will reject coronavirus risk and give-in to motivated reasoning/wishful thinking unless viable, practical, accessible, and attractive solutions are presented. How helping prevent audiences from panic is necessary for effective communication.

๐Ÿ”—https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/risa.13334
A lot of insights from climate change risk communication apply to the US right now, especially with science misinformation being spread by the US president.

๐Ÿ”—https://twitter.corm/vivek_murthy/status/1244142368875581440
Five tried and true principles for communication during a public health crisis (these literally save lives)