Infection Testing & Diagnostics

๐Ÿ’ฌ WhatsApp Chat for Testing section ๐Ÿ’ฌ

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SARS CoV-2: NWLP Heat inactivation with no extraction

WHO List of Protocols for Laboratory Testing

Technical guidance for laboratories conducting COVID-19 testing.

โœ๏ธ Edit this document to make it better โœ๏ธ


COVID-19: how hospital-based healthcare workers can arrange laboratory testing for patients

Guidance for healthcare professionals from Public Health England on how to request COVID-19 lab tests

UK government test kit regulations

UK govt. guide and official submission form for manufacturers of COVID-19 test kits

Testing Resource Center

Curated strategies and best-practices for rolling out and scaling testing

The Crick COVID-19 Consortium

Francis Crick Institute shares guidance for steps involved in testing using open protocols and avoiding proprietary bottlenecks:

Supplementary Method 2 Chemical inactivation of clinical samples

Standard operating procedure on the handling of wet and dry swabs

Online Questionnaires and Diagnostics

See also:


๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ”— NHS 111 Online - About coronavirus (COVID-19)
Tool from the NHS to give advice on what to do next based on your symptoms.

111 Online

NHS Digital 111 Online Program Public Repo's

๐Ÿ”—Solvโ€™s COVID-19 response: Free telemedicine for providers on the front lines of care

An article from Solv Health discussing how they are providing free telemedicine for providers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

Self-assessment by government of Canada. Includes information on how apply for benefits.

COVID-19 Screeningย Tool

Screening tool from Apple to work out whether symptoms are COVID-19 related or not.


COVID-19 pre-triage module. With the help of a few simple questions filled in by the patient at home, the app determines whether the patient should contact a doctor or go to the hospital, or not. This pre-triage is available free of charge in 10 languages.


Veterinary scientist hailed for Faroe Islands' lack of COVID-19 deaths

๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ด ๐Ÿ”—
Debes Christiansen adapted his salmon-testing lab to test for disease among humans''

FDA authorizes new test that could detect Coronavirus in about 45 minutes

FDA approves new test that could detect Coronavirus in about 45 minutes

Crowdsourcing against coronavirus: Seattle biologists work on DIY test kit

Crowdsourcing against Coronavirus: Seattle biologists work on DIY test kit

Open Initiatives

OpenCOVID-19 initiative

Collaboration to develop Opensource bio test.

Biodesign Challenge 2020

โœ‰๏ธJim Haseloff @ University of Cambridge -
set up an open DIY device and protocol design group under BioDesign2020

Coronavirus Data Hub

Blockchain technology to check the veracity of data relating to the Coronavirus pandemic

Test Systems and Labs


Open Cell has developed open-source high-throughput COVID-19 emergency labs


Automated test system to scale COVID-19 testing to hundreds of thousands of samples per day.


Peto is a reliable, scalable, event-sourced, open source software system designed to support periodic mass testing for novel infectious diseases such as Coronavirus.

List of COVID-19 Testing in the USA

List of Covid-19 testing in the United States (NOT OPENLY ACCESSIBLE, permission must be requested)

Test Kit Developers & Manufacturers

Lists of Test Kit Manufacturers

FIND database of test kit manufacturers

Over 200 manufacturers of test kits listeda

Testing for the Presence of Antibodies


Diazyme has developed an antibody-based test kit for COVID-19


Alphabiolabs has developed an antibody-based test kit for COVID-19 (currently out of stock)


We develop innovative reagents for biomarker & drug discovery scientists through our 3 brands ELISA Genie, Assay Genie & Antibody Genie


MoLogic has been awarded ยฃ1 million by the UK government to develop a new COVID-19 test kit


The complete package for the diagnostic of COVID-19

Testing for the Presence of the Virus (rRT-PCR)

Charite Test

Researchers from the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF) atย Charitรฉย โ€“ย Universitรคtsmedizin Berlinhave developed a new laboratory assay to detect the novel Chinese coronavirus. The assay protocol has now been published by WHO as a guideline for diagnostic detection. The new assay enables suspected cases to be tested quickly.

The University of the Basque Country

Basque scientists validate alternative RT-PCR test for COVID-19 detection. Researchers from the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Ikerbasque, Achucarro and the Biofisika Bizkaia Foundation, in collaboration with Osakidetza, the Basque Public Health Service, are participating in the project.


PowerCheck 2019-nCoV Real-time PCR Kit provides the fast and accurate testing solution for Coronavirus, targeting the E gene for beta Coronavirus and the RdRp gene for COVID-19 specifically. Contracted by the South Korean government.


Flexible PCR setup solution. Contracted by the South Korean government.


BGI Develops Real-Time Fluorescent RT-PCR kit for detecting the 2019 Novel Coronavirus


LabCorpโ€™s test has been validated for use with respiratory samples, including nasopharyngeal (NP) or oropharyngeal (OP) aspirates or washes, NP or OP swabs, and broncheoalveolar lavage (BAL). The test is a qualitative assay using PCR technology.


๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ”— OK oronavirus-in-as-Little-as-Five-Minutes
Abbott has developed a PCR-derivative blood test with results in ~5 minutes
Some kind of PCR derivative based on video on this page.

Sense Biodetection

Sense Biodetection Ltd is developing a test kit for COVID-19
Some technical details: it's equivalent to PCR using proprietary chemistry and device technology that is ultra rapid and low cost allowing for a single-use product that can be used anywhere"

Diagnostics for the Real World

Uses SAMBA II machines, PCR based, 90 minutes


The ID NOWโ„ข COVID-19 assay is now available for use on the ID NOW platform under U.S. Food and Drug Administration Emergency Use Authorization (EUA). The ID NOWโ„ข COVID-19 rapid test delivers high-quality molecular positive results in as little as 5 minutes, targeting the coronavirus (COVID-19) RdRp Gene.ย ย 

Home Testing Kits


US company provides a home testing kit. Samples are collected at home then sent to a lab for analysis. Have announced that they are making their test available for the medical workers first.

Scanwell Health

Scanwell is working on getting at-home serological testing available in the US.ย 


NURX has launched the first at-home COVID-19 test. You can get a home test kit delivered overnight, use a throat swab to take a sample, send it back to them and get results within 48 hours.

Detection Using AI

Scripps Research

Downloadable app to wearables from Apple, Fitbit, Garmin, etc. monitors your heart beats. Faster than usual, it can mean that youโ€™re coming down with a cold, flu, Coronavirus, or other viral infection.


XRayCovid-19 is an embryonic project that uses Artificial Intelligence to assist the health system in the COVID-19 diagnostic process. It is characterized by easy use; efficiency in response time and effectiveness in the result.


An open source explainable deep CNN model for predicting the presence of COVID-19 in chest X-rays

Source of sample

Link Drop for "Source of sample"

๐Ÿ”—The clinical effectiveness of tests to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus, and antibodies to ๐Ÿ”—SARS-CoV-2, to inform COVID-19 diagnosis

Saliva sampling for Covid-19 testing

General notes

  • most studies have been done on severely diseased patients. These results may not generalise to those with mild symptoms.
  • most studies done on initial admission to hospital. Results change over time (seem to become negative) even if patient is still severely unwell. Perhaps due to other infections taking over.


  • nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs)
  • direct immunofluorescence (DFA)


Azzi et al.2020 Saliva is a reliable tool to detect SARS-CoV-2
n=25, of severe or very severe disease patients.
Source:ย drooled or if patient intubated then aspirated using pipette if possible
When: ?when sample taken vs hospitalisation / symptoms?
Preprocess: ? into VTM or lysis or ? if nasopharyngeal vs saliva processed differently ?
Detection: ?what RNA purification and RT-qPCR system was used.?
Control: ?what positive control was usedย if any?
Result: All showed positive RT-qPCR of saliva. Two patients were -ve from nasopharyngeal but +ve from saliva (1 patient for 1 day and another for 2 days).
Saliva Ct always under 33 cycles (range 18.12โ€“32.23, mean 27.16 +/โˆ’ 3.07).

Kai-Wang To et al. 12 February 2020

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Control: ?what detection positive control was used if any?

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"In some patients, Coronavirus was detected only in saliva but not in nasopharyngeal aspirate"

Is for a range of non SARS-2 viruses.

Source: saliva
When: Not clear when sample taken vs hospitalisation / symptoms ย Most (146/159) of the saliva specimens were collected <2 days after the collection of the NPA sample. So introduces error making comparison less fair.

  • Result:
  • some

(not sars-2)
Generally NPA viral load significantly greater than saliva (7.23 vs 5.30 log10 copies per mL)
27/159 (17%) saliva had higher viral load than NPA

Source: saliva
When:ย Not specified but NPA and saliva taken at the same time
Detection: multiplex PCR using the Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel
Result: detected viruses in both NPA and saliva, some only in NPA, some only in saliva. Of corona viruses (Coronavirus OC43, Coronavirus 229E) one was detected in NPA and not saliva and one in saliva and not NPA (Table 4)

Source: saliva and throat wash (by gargling 10 mL normal saline)
Performed RT-PCR on throat wash supernatant (S), N-acetyl-L-cysteine treated supernatant (M, mucus-associated), and cellular fractions (C).
When:ย sampling day varied from day 2 to day 9 after onset of fever, with a median of day 4.
Preprocess: -80 oC storage until use. But showed similar RNA levels in non-frozen and frozen then thawed samples.
Detection: n/a but Qiagen RNA purification followed by Taqman assay design (Applied Biosystems)
Result: saliva had x30 more than throat wash: throat wash median 3.56 x 10^3 copies/mL, saliva median 9.92 x 10^4 copies/mL

๐Ÿ”—Kojima et al. 15 April 2020 Self-Collected Oral Fluid and Nasal Swabs Demonstrate Comparable Sensitivity to Clinician Collected Nasopharyngeal Swabs for Covid-19 Detection
n=45, 29 +ve, samples collected at home

  • self-collected oral fluid swab specimens with and without clinician supervision
  • clinician-supervised self-collected mid-turbinate (nasal) swab specimens
  • clinician-collected nasopharyngeal swab specimens

Preprocess: DNA/RNA Shieldโ„ข solution, Zymo Research
Detection: ย lysed and extracted with RNA purification kit (Norgen Biotek). RT-PCRย single colour TaqMan probe, N1, N2 primer/probe assay (US CDC), N3 (Integrated DNA Technologies)

  • 90% clinician-supervised self-collected oral fluid swab specimens
  • 85% clinician-supervised self-collected mid-turbinate (nasal) swab specimens
  • 79% clinician-collected posterior nasopharyngeal swab specimens
  • 66% unmonitored self-collected oral fluid swab specimens detected

(without feedback, some unsupervised patients did not cough before self-collecting their sample)

๐Ÿ”— Wyllie et al. April 22 2020 Saliva is more sensitive for SARS-CoV-2 detection in COVID-19 patients than nasopharyngeal swabs
n=44, severely diseased
Source: self collected saliva or clinical administered nasopharyngeal swabs
Detection: US CDC SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR

  • higher titre in saliva
  • detected SARS-CoV-2 from saliva but not nasopharyngeal swabs from eight matching samples
  • nasopharyngeal swabs and not saliva from three matched samples

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๐Ÿ”— 80% of Rapid COVID-19 Tests the Czech Republic Bought From China are Wrong

Heartbreak in the Streets of Wuhan

Coronavirus test kits purchased from China are unreliable, says Science Committee member

  • C

Britain has millions of Coronavirus antibody tests, but they donโ€™t work

How Broad Institute converted a clinical processing lab into a large-scale COVID-19 testing facility in a matter of days


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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Guardian

The Government of the Republic of Korea

How South Korea responded to a pandemic using ICT, report including testing

The role of CRP testing in Coronavirus management in China

Abacus DX blog: CRP is an important marker in the prediagnostics and treatment follow up of the new Coronavirus (2019-nCoV).